How to Not Get Lost on the Trail

Make me to know your ways, O Lord; teach me your paths.  ~Psalm 25:4 (ESV)

On a recent day hiking trip to the Red River Gorge Geological Area in the Daniel Boone National Forest, we met a couple at the trailhead who were on a multi-day backpacking trip.  As we were loading our gear into the car after the hike, a man approached us and seemed to be asking for directions.  After a brief discussion, though, it turned out he and his wife were hoping to get a ride to their vehicle because they had taken a wrong turn on the trail and were now 3.5 miles off course.  We happily gave them a ride, and our conversation on the drive inspired a few thoughts on how to not get lost on the trail.

Before You Go:

Learn how to navigate using a map and compass and carry them as a backup:  With today’s amazing GPS technology and the availability of some excellent smart phone apps, many people rely exclusively on these devices.  As much as I am a fan of digital technology, there are limitations:  batteries run out, devices break, software fails, and GPS signals can be obscured by rough terrain and heavy foliage.  For these reasons I strongly recommend learning how to read a topographic map and navigate using a magnetic compass and carrying both as a backup especially when exploring more rugged and remote areas.  There are plenty of good books to get you started, but hands-on experience is important if you ever have to count on these skills.  Check with a local park, outfitter, or hiking club to see if they know of classes available in your area, or if you live near an REI store they typically offer a Map & Compass Navigation Basics course several times a year.

Research the trails and parks you plan to hike:  Research is amazingly easy with many great online sources for topographic maps, guides, and park information.  One of the most important things to understand before loading up your gear and heading to a new destination is the difficulty of the trails and terrain you will face so you show up prepared with appropriate maps and trail guides.  In parks with good signage and well-blazed, easy-to-follow trails, a simple overview map showing roads, trails, facilities, and a few geographic features may be sufficient.  But, in rugged terrain with twisting, turning, or poorly marked trails, a detailed topographic map and possibly a descriptive trail guide may be necessary.

Although visitor centers and park offices are usually a great source of maps and information, do your homework rather than just showing up.  Hours of operation can be unpredictable and many isolated or smaller parks close facilities in the off season, while some have no facilities at all.  Also, some parks require reservations or advance purchase of permits, especially for overnight stays, and may require you to check-in when you arrive.  Knowing and preparing for these things ahead of time will avoid disappointment later.

Map Detail ComparisonThree maps of the same area in Red River Gorge showing different levels of detail.

Download and print hardcopies of maps and other information:  You can likely find everything you need online, but make sure you download it to your devices before you go as cell service may be limited or non-existent on the trail.  Even if you are using your electronic devices as your primary navigation tool, print and carry hardcopies as a backup.  If you are a fan of physical maps and guide books, like me, rather than bringing the whole map or a toting a heavy book in your pack, make copies of the sections and pages you need, seal them in a zip-top bag to keep them dry, and carry them in a pocket so they are easily accessible on the trail.

IMG_0269Map sections and guide book pages ready for the trail.

Leave a trip plan with at least one responsible person:  Not every hike requires extensive planning, but the further you venture away from civilization the more intentional you need to be.  Even on short trips with minimal preparations, it is good to let at least one responsible person know where you are going, who you are with, the trail(s) you intend to hike, and when you expect to be home.  On longer trips let two or three people know, and include more details, like vehicle information, local agencies to contact, and a daily itinerary with trailheads, routes, and specific campsites if possible.  An easy way to send all this info is by marking up a map with these details and attaching it to an email.  This may not keep you from getting lost, but if something goes wrong it will help rescuers find you.  Make sure you contact everyone after you return home or if you decide to extend your trip so they don’t get concerned and start alerting the authorities.

Trip Plan ExampleExample trip plan with detailed maps.

On the Trail:

Orient yourself at the trailhead with your map:  Once you arrive at the trailhead, take a few minutes to look at the map and orient yourself as things tend to look different in person than they do on a screen or in a book.  Start by finding the trailhead on your map.  As ridiculously simple as this sounds, I have actually run into people on the trail who were not sure where they started their hike, not a good position to be in if you find yourself lost and in need of help.  After you know your starting point, study the trails you will be hiking, as well as nearby trails, especially those intersecting your route.

Next, identify major, extended geographic features in the area such as roads, rivers, and ridgelines.  When paralleling your route, these features are called “handrails,” and when perpendicular to your route they are called “backstops.”  These features are helpful to keep you oriented along the way, but also provide easy-to-find destinations to navigate toward if you get turned around.

IMG_0243Rough Trail (#221) trailhead in Red River Gorge.

Check your progress using the map:  As you hike periodically check your progress against the map.  Pay close attention at trail junctions and always be on the lookout for distinctive landmarks such as a prominent bends in the trail, high points like peaks, ridges, and cliffs, and low points like ravines, creeks, and lakes.  It is also good to look behind you on occasion as another means to stay oriented.  Even on a loop trail this could prove useful if you ever need to backtrack.  Paying attention as you go and noting each point on the map ensures you will never be too far off your desired path at any given moment.

Proceed cautiously at poorly marked trail junctions:  There are situations where extra precaution is warranted.  Areas with poorly marked or numerous unofficial trails can be particularly difficult.  Also, be aware that signs and markers are sometimes damaged by weather or vandals.  If you end up at a questionable trail junction, proceed with caution and use your map and compass to determine which path coincides with the direction you are traveling.  After choosing a route, proceed a short distance and look for trail blazes (or cairns in some environments), signs, or recognizable terrain features.  If you find a clear indictor that you are on the right path press on, but if nothing appears or the trail starts to fade, return to the trail junction and try a different direction.  If you find yourself at a particularly confusing trail junction be sure to mark the direction you came from in a non-destructive fashion to help you backtrack if you do not find a clear way forward.

IMG_7016Weathered trail marker on Buck Trail (#226) in Red River Gorge.

Don’t take unnecessary risks if the trail is obstructed:  Another situation demanding extra precaution is when you encounter obstructions on the trail such as creek crossings, blown down trees, slides, or wash outs that require you to detour around.  If an obvious path is not evident take your time looking for a safe and clear way through, but don’t venture too far and risk losing the trail completely.

IMG_7357One of many creek crossings you’ll find in Red River Gorge this one along part of the Sheltowee Trace National Recreation Trail.

Turn back if you are in doubt or daylight is running out:  If you are in doubt or travel becomes too difficult or hazardous, it is always better to turn back and try another day.  Also, pay attention to the time as well as the distance you have traveled and the distance you still need to hike to reach your destination.  If it looks like you will lose daylight take the fastest and easiest route back to the trailhead.  Carrying a headlamp or flashlight is an essential precaution, but even with a light source night navigation is difficult and can be downright dangerous in some circumstances.

IMG_2678Night navigation is dangerous in areas with high cliffs.

Don’t panic and stay put if you really are lost:  If everything I have suggested here fails you and you believe you are lost, you need to stop, take a breath, and assess the situation.  Pull out your GPS, smartphone, or map and compass and perhaps after resting a few minutes to clear your head you will be able to figure out where you are.  If not, it is time to start thinking about shelter and other resources at your disposal, including ways to signal for help, but these are topics for another post.  If you really are lost and searchers need to be called in the worst thing you can do is to wander aimlessly.  Stay put!  If you rush around in a panic you might end up getting injured and you will ultimately make it harder for a search team to find you.

IMG_3567How prepared are you to spend the night if you get lost?

As for the couple we helped that day, their two biggest problems were inadequate planning and a serious lack of awareness on the trail.  By their own admission they did not know the area very well and did not do much homework or come prepared with a good map.  On the trail, after they veered off course, they passed through two trail junctions, a trailhead and parking area, and crossed a gravel road all of which were marked even on the basic overview map they were carrying.  Had they been paying more attention, any one of these features should have alerted them to their mistake and allowed them to take corrective action sooner.  With a more detailed map they also would have had a few more opportunities to right their wrong because they could have seen where their route was either paralleling or crossing a creek and they would have had a better understanding of the terrain they were traversing.  In the end they were fortunate they remained on the official trails (there are many unofficial trails in Red River Gorge) and that their detour led them to a trailhead where they were able to find assistance.

How to Not Get Lost Infographic

© Todd D. Nystrom and Todd the Hiker, 2017.

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Online Sources for PDF Topo Maps

If you venture outdoors, especially in more rugged and remote locations, you really need to carry a good topographic map and a compass and take the time to learn how to use them both.  For anyone old enough to remember the days of ordering paper copies of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) 7.5 minute (7.5’) quadrangle topographic maps, quads for short, and waiting for these prized treasures to arrive via snail mail, or hoping you could find an outfitter nearby that had your needed maps in stock, the digital world of the 21st century is an amazing place!

There is a plethora of online sources for maps, guides, and reviews of hiking and backpacking destinations both popular and obscure.  Not only can you access this information in mere minutes from the comfort of home, you can also download high quality digital versions of many documents legally and for FREE!  We are not talking about bootleg copies created on a home scanner by some computer savvy geek with cheese-puff-dust encrusted fingers here; no, we are talking about direct access to the most accurate and finest cartographic sources on the planet beamed directly to an electronic device near you!

While there are many sources out there, I have chosen the three I use most frequently to review in this article.  All these sources provide downloadable USGS 7.5’ quads in PDF format.  For each source I have provided the link to locate and download maps, another link to a representative map (Slade, KY Quadrangle which encompasses part of the Red River Gorge Geological Area in the Daniel Boone National Forest) to use for your own comparison purposes, a list of what I see as the pros and cons for each one, and finally some tips for printing and using these maps.

In my quality assessments I used common sections of a map printed with a Canon PIXMA MX892 inkjet printer on plain paper at the standard print quality setting.  I focused on printed maps for two key reasons.  First, and foremost, I believe you should always carry a hard copy map (and compass) when in the backcountry because electronic devices can and will fail you in critical situations!  And second, the onscreen display quality is equally good for all three of these sources, so I have no reason to comment individually on this aspect.

National Geographic Maps

  • Link:  http://www.natgeomaps.com/trail-maps/pdf-quads
  • Sample map (Slade, KY Quadrangle):  http://pdf.quad.download.s3.amazonaws.com/37083g6.pdf
  • Approximate file size:  5-6 MB
  • Note:  While these downloadable quads are free, National Geographic also offers a number of hard copy trail and travel maps and guides for sale, a number of which are waterproof.  These are well worth looking into if you are planning a big trip to one of the areas covered.
  • Pros:
    • This is an easy to use website with an interactive map to locate and select specific maps followed by a simple download process
    • The PDF files are formatted for printing on standard 8.5″ x 11″ letter size paper
      • Page 1 is a 1:100,000 scale index map of the quad
      • Pages 2-5 are standard 1:24,000, 7.5’ quads divided into four equally sized map sections formatted to fit a standard printed page
    • Shaded relief makes it easy to visualize the general topography of an area
    • Includes official hiking trails and other facilities in quads that cover national forests and national parks (at least for the ones I’ve looked at)
  • Cons:
    • Maps are based on older USGS quads, ranging from late 1970s to late 1990s vintage for the maps I have downloaded
    • The shaded relief feature is a pro from an overview perspective, but makes it more difficult to read map details like individual contour lines, roads, trails, and text on the printed maps
    • These maps are copyrighted material which is not an issue for personal use; however, they cannot be distributed freely, nor can you use the map images for blog posts or other such purposes without permission.  This should not be a problem for most people, but it is why I have not included an image of one of these maps in this post.

United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service (FSTopo Map Products)

  • Link:  https://data.fs.usda.gov/geodata/rastergateway/states-regions/states.php
  • Sample map (Slade, KY Quadrangle):  https://data.fs.usda.gov/geodata/rastergateway/data/37083/fstopo…
  • Approximate file size:  4-5 MB
  • Pros:
    • Easy to use website with an interactive map to locate and select specific maps followed by a simple download process
    • Includes significant detail of national forest facilities, hiking trails, etc. not found on the standard USGS topo maps
    • Because these maps are produced by a US government agency, they are considered public domain and can be reproduced and distributed freely.  If you do include a section of a map in a blog post, or another document you should still cite the source as common literary courtesy, though.
  • Cons:
    • Only includes lands managed by the US Forest Service
    • Contour lines are faint and very difficult to read when printed (at least that is the case on my home inkjet printer)
    • Map must be pieced together when printed full size on standard 8.5″ x 11″ paper (see tips for printing and using maps below)

United States Geological Survey (The National Map Download Client)

  • Link:  https://viewer.nationalmap.gov/basic/
  • Sample map (Slade, KY Quadrangle):  https://prd-tnm.s3.amazonaws.com/StagedProducts/Maps/USTopo/1/22777/7595171.pdf
  • Approximate file size:  30+ MB
  • Pros:
    • These are the most current US topo maps available (all of the ones I have recently downloaded were updated in 2016)
    • Highest resolution, best quality downloadable maps available (these are straight from the ultimate source)
    • These PDF files also include a satellite imagery layer you can turn on and off if your PDF reader has the requisite functionality (I am currently using Adobe Reader XI, Version 11.0.13)
    • Of the three sources discussed here, the individual contour lines on these maps are the easiest to read when printed (see photo below for a comparison of US Forest Service and USGS maps)
    • Generally these maps are public domain with no copyright restrictions; there are a couple minor exceptions but, “even those that include commercial data, may be reproduced freely and used for any purpose, provided copyright notices…are retained.”  Full details can be found here:  https://www2.usgs.gov/faq/categories/9797/3588
    • Historical topo maps dating back several decades are also available from the USGS
      • I find these maps useful for locating features no longer marked on newer maps such as old logging roads, that can make off-trail navigation and travel easier, and abandoned structures, that make interesting sites for adventure and exploration
      • You can also find historical topo maps dating back well over a century in the USGS National Map Download client
  • Cons:
    • More complicated website, the process to locate and download maps is not as intuitive as the other two sources (if needed instructions can be found here:  https://nationalmap.gov/ustopo/quickstart.pdf)
    • These maps do not include hiking trails and other facilities (at least not in the national forest and national park areas I have viewed or downloaded, though some of the historical maps that I have looked at do show trails)
    • Map must be pieced together when printed full size on standard 8.5″ x 11″ paper (see tips for printing and using maps below)

Tips for Printing and Using Maps

Note:  this method assumes a moderate level of computer literacy and skills using Microsoft PowerPoint or some similar software application.  Describing the computer and software application skills needed is beyond the scope this article.

  1. Set the zoom magnification to at least 100% in your PDF reader (I typically use something between the 100% and 150% zoom setting depending depending on whether I want more area coverage on a page or clearer details).
  2. Center the screen view on the area of the map you want to print and capture a screen shot of that section.
    • If the area of interest will not fit on a single screen you can use a lesser zoom magnification or you can capture multiple screen shots and print your map on multiple pages.
    • I typically create multiple detailed pages at a higher zoom magnification, and then print a smaller scale overview map of the larger area that fits on a single page.
  3. Paste the screen shot into PowerPoint where you can crop, size, and format it properly for printing, as well as overlaying your own information such as campsites, emergency phone numbers, and other details you might find useful on the trail.
  4. Make sure you capture a screen shot of the map scale at the same zoom magnification as your maps so you can incorporate it in your customized printed version, and be aware that if you enlarge or shrink your map images you also need to enlarge or shrink the map scale image at the same time to ensure they remain scaled identically.
  5. I also recommend capturing an image of the UTM grid coordinates around the margin unless your map image already includes the edges with this information. I usually trying to maximize area coverage on my maps so I just grab a quick screen shot of the margins that I can use for reference and then I actually overlay my own text so I can position it for minimal interference with the actual map.
  6. You should also capture other marginal information such as legends, magnetic north declination, and the UTM zone designation to incorporate in your map, but the scale of this information is not critical and can be sized to fit as desired.
  7. Finally, you can print out your maps on waterproof map paper, purchase a waterproof map case, or do what I do, and seal them in a zip lock bag, to ensure they remain dry and readable while on the trail.

img_6960Comparison of a printed section of the 7.5′ Pomeroyton, KY Quadrangle maps from the US Forest Service (left) and USGS (right).  The US Forest Service map includes details on trails and facilities, while the USGS map has much more readable contour lines.

© Todd D. Nystrom and Todd the Hiker, 2017.